Us pre election
The U.S. House of Representatives elections in Michigan took place on Primaries are state-level and local-level elections that take place prior to a. Die Präsidentschaftswahl in den Vereinigten Staaten ist für den 3. November Gemäß dem Presidential Election Day Act vom indem es ihm gelang, einige bisherige blaue Staaten, also US-Bundesstaaten, die in den letzten. U.S. Preelection Campaign - Dr. Josef Braml (DGAP): Wie Politaußenseiter den Was wir in Europa verlieren, weil in den USA das Geld regiert - meint Josef.
In the election, Jackson won the popular vote, but no one received the majority of electoral votes. According to the 12th Amendment in the Constitution, the House of Representatives must choose the president out of the top 3 people in the election.
Clay had come fourth, so he threw his support to Adams, who then won. Because Adams later named Clay his Secretary of State, Jackson's supporters claimed that Adams gained the presidency by making a deal with Clay.
Charges of a "corrupt bargain" followed Adams through his term. Then in , , , and , the winner of electoral vote lost the popular vote outright.
Numerous constitutional amendments have been submitted seeking to replace the Electoral College with a direct popular vote, but none has ever successfully passed both Houses of Congress.
Another alternate proposal is the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact , an interstate compact whereby individual participating states agree to allocate their electors based on the winner of the national popular vote instead of just their respective statewide results.
The presidential election day was established on a Tuesday in the month of November because of the factors involved weather, harvests and worship.
When voters used to travel to the polls by horse, Tuesday was an ideal day because it allowed people to worship on Sunday, ride to their county seat on Monday, and vote on Tuesday—all before market day, Wednesday.
The month of November also fits nicely between harvest time and harsh winter weather, which could be especially bad to people traveling by horse and buggy.
Until , presidents were not sworn in until March 4 because it took so long to count and report ballots, and because of the winner's logistical issues of moving to the capital.
With better technology and the 20th Amendment being passed, presidential inaugurations were moved to noon on January 20—allowing presidents to start their duties sooner.
The Federal Election Campaign Act of was enacted to increase disclosure of contributions for federal campaigns. Thus, this began a trend of presidential candidates declaring their intentions to run as early as the Spring of the previous calendar year so they can start raising and spending the money needed for their nationwide campaign.
The first president, George Washington , was elected as an independent. Since the election of his successor, John Adams , in , all winners of U.
Third parties have taken second place only twice, in and The last time a third independent candidate achieved significant success although still finishing in third place was in , and the last time a third-party candidate received any electoral votes not from faithless electors was in Article Two of the United States Constitution stipulates that for a person to serve as President, the individual must be a natural-born citizen of the United States , at least 35 years old, and a resident of the United States for a period of no less than 14 years.
A candidate may start running his or her campaign early before turning 35 years old or completing 14 years of residency, but must meet the age and residency requirements by Inauguration Day.
The Twenty-second Amendment to the Constitution also sets a term limit: Constitution also has two provisions that apply to all federal offices in general, not just the presidency.
Article I, Section 3, Clause 7 states that if the U. Congress convicts any officer on impeachment, they may also bar that person from holding any public office in the future.
And Section 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment prohibits the election to any federal office of any person who had held any federal or state office and then engaged in insurrection, rebellion or treason; this disqualification can be waived if such an individual gains the consent of two-thirds of both houses of Congress.
In addition, the Twelfth Amendment establishes that the Vice-President must meet all of the qualifications of being a President.
The modern nominating process of U. This process was never included in the United States Constitution , and thus evolved over time by the political parties to clear the field of candidates.
The primary elections are run by state and local governments, while the caucuses are organized directly by the political parties. Some states hold only primary elections, some hold only caucuses, and others use a combination of both.
These primaries and caucuses are staggered generally between January and June before the federal election, with Iowa and New Hampshire traditionally holding the first presidential state caucus and primary, respectively.
Like the general election, presidential caucuses or primaries are indirect elections. The major political parties officially vote for their presidential candidate at their respective nominating conventions, usually all held in the summer before the federal election.
Depending on each state's law and state's political party rules, when voters cast ballots for a candidate in a presidential caucus or primary, they may be voting to award delegates "bound" to vote for a candidate at the presidential nominating conventions, or they may simply be expressing an opinion that the state party is not bound to follow in selecting delegates to their respective national convention.
Unlike the general election, voters in the U. Furthermore, each political party can determine how many delegates to allocate to each state and territory.
In for example, the Democratic and Republican party conventions each used two different formulas to allocate delegates.
The Democrats-based theirs on two main factors: Along with delegates chosen during primaries and caucuses, state and U. For Republicans, they consist of the three top party officials from each state and territory.
Democrats have a more expansive group of unpledged delegates called " superdelegates ", who are party leaders and elected officials. Each party's presidential candidate also chooses a vice presidential nominee to run with him or her on the same ticket , and this choice is rubber-stamped by the convention.
If no single candidate has secured a majority of delegates including both pledged and unpledged , then a " brokered convention " results.
All pledged delegates are then "released" and are able to switch their allegiance to a different candidate.
Thereafter, the nomination is decided through a process of alternating political horse trading , and additional rounds of re-votes. The conventions have historically been held inside convention centers , but since the late 20th century both the Democratic and Republican parties have favored sports arenas and domed stadiums to accommodate the increasing attendance.
Under the United States Constitution, the manner of choosing electors for the Electoral College is determined by each state's legislature.
Although each state designates electors by popular vote, other methods are allowed. For instance, instead of having a popular vote, a number of states used to select presidential electors by a direct vote of the state legislature itself.
However, federal law does specify that all electors must be selected on the same day, which is "the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November," i.
Thus, the presidential election is really an amalgamation of separate and simultaneous state elections instead of a single national election run by the federal government.
Like any other election in the United States, the eligibility of an individual for voting is set out in the Constitution and regulated at state level.
The Constitution states that suffrage cannot be denied on grounds of race or color , sex or age for citizens eighteen years or older.
Beyond these basic qualifications, it is the responsibility of state legislatures to regulate voter eligibility. Generally, voters are required to vote on a ballot where they select the candidate of their choice.
The presidential ballot is a vote "for the electors of a candidate" meaning that the voter is not voting for the candidate, but endorsing a slate of electors pledged to vote for a specific presidential and vice presidential candidate.
Many voting ballots allow a voter to "blanket vote" for all candidates in a particular political party or to select individual candidates on a line by line voting system.
Which candidates appear on the voting ticket is determined through a legal process known as ballot access. Usually, the size of the candidate's political party and the results of the major nomination conventions determine who is pre-listed on the presidential ballot.
Thus, the presidential election ticket will not list every candidate running for President, but only those who have secured a major party nomination or whose size of their political party warrants having been formally listed.
Laws are in effect to have other candidates pre-listed on a ticket, provided that enough voters have endorsed the candidate, usually through a signature list.
The final way to be elected for president is to have one's name written in at the time of election as a write-in candidate. This is used for candidates who did not fulfill the legal requirements to be pre-listed on the voting ticket.
It is also used by voters to express a distaste for the listed candidates, by writing in an alternative candidate for president such as Mickey Mouse or comedian Stephen Colbert whose application was voted down by the South Carolina Democratic Party.
In any event, a write-in candidate has never won an election for President of the United States. Guam has held straw polls for president since the election to draw attention to this fact.
Most state laws establish a winner-take-all system, wherein the ticket that wins a plurality of votes wins all of that state's allocated electoral votes, and thus has their slate of electors chosen to vote in the Electoral College.
Maine and Nebraska do not use this method, instead giving two electoral votes to the statewide winner and one electoral vote to the winner of each Congressional district.
Each state's winning slate of electors then meets at their respective state's capital on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December to cast their electoral votes on separate ballots for President and Vice President.
Although Electoral College members can technically vote for anyone under the U. Constitution, 24 states have laws to punish faithless electors ,  those who do not cast their electoral votes for the person whom they have pledged to elect.
In early January, the total Electoral College vote count is opened by the sitting Vice President, acting in his capacity as President of the Senate , and read aloud to a joint session of the incoming Congress, which was elected at the same time as the President.
If no candidate receives a majority of the electoral vote at least , the President is determined by the rules outlined by the 12th Amendment. Specifically, the selection of President would then be decided by a contingent election in a ballot of the House of Representatives.
For the purposes of electing the President, each state has only one vote. A ballot of the Senate is held to choose the Vice President.
In this ballot, each senator has one vote. The House of Representatives has chosen the victor of the presidential race only twice, in and ; the Senate has chosen the victor of the vice-presidential race only once, in If neither are chosen by then, Congress by law determines who shall act as President, pursuant to the 20th Amendment.
Unless there are faithless electors, disputes, or other controversies, the events in December and January mentioned above are largely a formality since the winner can be determined based on the state-by-state popular vote results.
Between the general election and Inauguration Day, this apparent winner is referred to as the " President-elect " unless it is a sitting President that has won re-election.
The typical periods of the presidential election process are as follows, with the dates corresponding to the general election:. Among the 44 persons who have served as president, only Donald Trump had never held a position in either government or the military prior to taking office.
Grant , and Dwight D. Eisenhower had was in the military. Herbert Hoover previously served as the Secretary of Commerce. Everyone else served in elected public office before becoming president, such as being Vice President, a member of the United States Congress , or a state or territorial governor.
Fourteen Presidents also served as vice president. Bush began their first term after winning an election.
The remaining nine began their first term as president according to the presidential line of succession after the intra-term death or resignation of their predecessor.
Truman , and Lyndon B. Arthur , and Gerald Ford were not. Ford's accession to the presidency is unique in American history in that he became vice president through the process prescribed by the Twenty-fifth Amendment rather than by winning an election, thus making him the only U.
Sixteen presidents had previously served in the U. Senate, including four of the five who served between and However, only three were incumbent senators at the time they were elected president Warren G.
Harding in , John F. Kennedy in , and Barack Obama in Eighteen presidents had earlier served in the House of Representatives. However, only one was a sitting representative when elected to presidency James A.
Bush have been governors of a state. Geographically, these presidents were from either very large states Reagan from California , Bush from Texas or from a state south of the Mason—Dixon line and east of Texas Carter from Georgia , Clinton from Arkansas.
In all, sixteen presidents have been former governors, including seven who were incumbent governors at the time of their election to the presidency.
The most common job experience, occupation or profession of U. Twenty-two presidents were also in the military. Eight presidents had served as Cabinet Secretaries, with five of the six Presidents who served between and having held the office of U.
Advances in technology and media have also affected presidential campaigns. The invention of both radio and television have given way to the reliance of national political advertisements across those methods of communication.
National advertisements such as Lyndon B. Bush 's commercial " Revolving Door " became major factors in those respective elections.
In , George H. Bush's promise of " Read my lips: Since the development of the internet in the mids, Internet activism has also become an invaluable component of presidential campaigns, especially since The internet was first used in the presidential elections, but primarily as a brochure for the candidate online.
In , both candidates George W. Bush and Al Gore created, maintained and updated their campaign website.
But it was not until the presidential election cycle was the potential value of the internet seen. By the summer of , ten people competing in the presidential election had developed campaign websites.
His website played a significant role in his overall campaign strategy. In , the internet became a grassroots and a voice of the people tool—a way for the users to connect with each other and with the campaign, like Dean's website had done in All of the major candidates had a website and utilized social networking like Facebook and MySpace.
The popularity of a candidate could be measured by the number of "friends" on these sites as well as on websites like Hitwise, which listed the number of hits all of the presidential candidate's websites had each week.
Internet channels such as YouTube were used by candidates to share speeches and ads for free. This also served as a forum for users to attack other candidates by uploading videos of gaffes.
This represents 73 percent of adult internet users. The study also showed that 22 percent of adult internet users used social network sites or Twitter to get information about and discuss the elections and 26 percent of all adults used cell phones to learn about or participate in campaigns.
E-campaigning as it has come to be called, is subject to very little regulation. On March 26, , the Federal Election Commission voted unanimously to "not regulate political communication on the Internet, including emails, blogs and the creating of Web sites"  This decision made only paid political ads placed on websites subject to campaign finance limitations.
The presidential election process is controversial, with critics arguing that it is inherently undemocratic, and discourages voter participation and turnout in many areas of the country.
Because of the staggered nature of the primary season, voters in Iowa, New Hampshire and other small states which traditionally hold their primaries and caucuses first in January usually have a major impact on the races.
Campaign activity, media attention, and voter participation are usually higher in these states, as the candidates attempt to build momentum and generate a bandwagon effect in these early primaries.
Conversely, voters in California and other large states which traditionally hold their primaries last in June usually end up having no say in who the presidential candidates will be.
The races are usually over by then, and thus the campaigns, the media, and voters have little incentive to participate in these late primaries. As a result, more states vie for earlier primaries to claim a greater influence in the process.
However, compressing the primary calendar in this way limits the ability of lesser-known candidates to effectively corral resources and raise their visibility among voters, especially when competing with better-known candidates who have more financial resources and the institutional backing of their party's establishment.
Primary and caucus reform proposals include a National Primary held on a single day; or the Interregional Primary Plan , where states would be grouped into six regions, and each of the regions would rotate every election on who would hold their primaries first.
With the primary races usually over before June, the political conventions have mostly become scripted, ceremonial affairs.
As the drama has left the conventions, and complaints grown that they were scripted and dull pep rallies, public interest and viewership has fallen off.
After having offered gavel-to-gavel coverage of the major party conventions in the midth century, the Big Three television networks now only devote approximately three hours of coverage one hour per night.
Critics also argue that the Electoral College is archaic and inherently undemocratic. With all states, except Maine and Nebraska, using a winner-take-all system, both the Democratic and the Republican candidates are almost certain to win all the electoral votes from those states whose residents predominantly vote for the Democratic Party or the Republican Party, respectively.
This encourages presidential candidates to focus exponentially more time, money, and energy campaigning in a few so-called " swing states ", states in which no single candidate or party has overwhelming support.
Such swing states like Ohio are inundated with campaign visits, saturation television advertising, get-out-the-vote efforts by party organizers, and debates.
Meanwhile, candidates and political parties have no incentive to mount nationwide campaign efforts, or work to increase voter turnout, in predominately Democratic Party "safe states" like California or predominately Republican Party "safe states" like Texas.
In practice, the winner-take-all system also both reinforces the country's two-party system and decreases the importance of third and minor political parties.
In theory, it is possible to secure the necessary electoral votes from only the eleven most populous states and then ignore the rest of the country.
In , Representative Samuel F. Vinton of Ohio proposed an amendment to the constitution that would replace the electoral college system with a lot system.
The Joint Resolution called for each state to elect, by a simple majority, a presidential candidate of said state.
Each state would notify Congress of the presidential election results. Congress would then inscribe the name of every state on uniform balls, equal to the number of said state's members of Congress, and deposit into a box.
In a joint session of Congress, a ball would be drawn, and the elected candidate of the state of which is written on the drawn ball would be named President.
A second ball would immediately be drawn after, and that state's candidate would be named Vice-President. How they end up voting would have a lot of influence on the final result.
D emographics were thought to be of importance here. A country where men and whites tend to back Trump, while women and ethnic minorities flock to the Democrat's candidate.
These demographic splits did come to light to a certain extent, but a key part in Clinton's failure to claim certain states was the fact that ethnic minorities and women didn't back her in the numbers initially expected.
T rump triumphed in Ohio by a margin of 8. As such its result was seen as very significant when determining the outcome of the race nationwide, with polling in Ohio was showing Trump marginally ahead of Clinton at the start of November.
Situated on the Great Lakes, it is the seventh most populous state in the country. Minority ethnic voters hold less sway here, with 83 per cent of the population being white according to the census compared to 72 per cent across the US as a whole.
Florida has been one of the hardest to call swing states in this election with the margins between the two candidates in recent polling being too close to call.
Florida is at once the oldest and one of the most racially diverse in America, and its voting in the past five presidential races has followed the result of the country as a whole.
Both candidates have had multiple campaign stops here in recent weeks. The state played a pivotal role in the election, when out of more than 5.
C linton triumphed in Virginia with Nowadays, one in five of its people are black or African American, part of an increasingly moderate population based in its urban areas.
This shifting of demographics meant that the state was expected to stay Democrat this time around, with polls showing Clinton eight points clear of Trump at the end of October.
Situated on the Atlantic coast, Virginia was the first colonial possession established in British America. North Carolina was highly coveted for both Trump and Clinton, with the candidates making multiple campaign stops there in the fortnight leading up to election day.
While Obama won it in with the assistance of demographic shifts and liberal urban areas, Romney managed to claim it for the Republicans in - the only swing state Obama lost in the last presidential election.
This southeastern state is the ninth most populous in America and has a lower white population, at 64 per cent, than the average state.
All of these were essential battlegrounds that both candidates canvassed hard. With most votes already counted Trump looks to have secured the votes of at least three in five voters in 10 states while Clinton can only boast the same vote share in five.
O ver six million people voted for third party candidates in this election - tripling the number since Exit polls showed how dissatisfied Americans were with both candidates, and this shows in the number of people who voted for a candidate that wasn't Trump or Clinton.
T he Senate and the House of Representatives, the two chambers that comprise America's legislature, also had elections.
The Republicans held onto both of these chambers.